Anyone studying the biography of the prophet of Islam, Mohammed, will find three types of evidence of his prophethood.
The first type is his exemplary character throughout his entire life, both before and after prophethood. His honesty and truthfulness was known to those closest to him and all members of his tribe. His title before prophethood was ‘Al-Amin’, or the Trustworthy. People used to entrust him with their most valuable possessions when they travelled or at other times. The prominent businesswoman, Khadijah, may Allah be pleased with her, appointed him to manage her trading business and later married him due to his honesty, business skills, and geniality.
He was known for his justice and outstanding intellect. He was the man who all tribal leaders agreed to accept his decision when the twelve tribes of Qureish disagreed over which tribal leader would replace the sacred black stone in its setting after the rebuilding of the Kaaba. His wise decision of having them all hold it together stopped potential tribal conflict over this matter.
There is historical consensus that none of the people who lived at time of the prophet in Makkah, even those who rejected his message, had ever accused him of lying, dishonesty or unethical behavior before revelation. When he called them to gather at the hill of Al-Safa and asked them whether or not they would believe him if he told them that men on horses are coming to attack them from the next valley, they all answered, “Yes! You never lied to us”. It was a clear testimony to his sound mind, strong personality and truthfulness.
His noble character after prophecy was also well known among his closest companions who adored him and were ready to sacrifice their lives and wealth for him. His personal life was simple and renounced from luxury. He was devoted to worship and family in his private time. He was a human with a distinctive personality that fostered trust in every person who knew him, which is why so many had faith in him and believed his claim that he was a prophet and a messenger from God.
The second type of evidence was his dedication to his mission. His prophetic duties were the first priority in his life from the time of his first revelation. His people offered him money and marriage to the most beautiful women in exchange for the abandonment of his claim to prophecy, but he refused and assured them that the purpose of his life was to convey the message of Islam to all the people of the world. The nature of his dealings with people and leaders after that in Makkah, Madinah, and around the Arabian Peninsula proves that he was not a person who sought material power, but rather a true prophet sent by Allah. Ady Bin Hatim, a noble Christian man from the tribe called Tuy, described how he was influenced by the prophet’s character at their first meeting. He said, “While he was taking me to his home, a woman stopped him. He stood with her for a long time discussing her complaints and needs. I swear this is not a king”.
History will not forget his forgiveness of his own people in Makkah who called him a liar, hurt him, tortured and killed his companions, and even fought him, tried to kill him, and forced him to migrate to Madinah. After all of this, he was very kind with them when he conquered Makkah. He treated them with mercy in spite of what they did to him. He said to them, “What do you think I am going to do with you?” They answered, “You are a noble brother a son of noble brother.” He then pronounced the words of a generous prophet and said to them, “Go - you are free.”, and forgave them.
The third type of evidence is the book that he claimed was revealed to him - the Holy Quran. It was and remains the biggest miracle associated with his prophethood from many different aspects, including the fact that it is an unmatched linguistic miracle. Even though the Arabs at the time of the Prophet were considered to be the most eloquent people, they did not dare to claim to refute the Quran by writing something of a comparable caliber. There is no other explanation for the Prophet Mohammed being an illiterate and introducing a book which was like none that a man had written containing challenges to those who claimed it was other than that. It has been more than fourteenth centuries so far and no one has come up with even a verse similar to the Quranic verses, let alone a chapter or whole book, so the challenge still stands for anyone who would like to investigate.
Accounts of prophets and events of the past, confirmed by scholars of previous religion are also a strong proof of the divine nature of the Quran. The Jews who lived in Madinah and did not believe in Prophet Mohammed used to listen to the Quran and what it says about their prophet Moses, peace be upon him, without argument because it confirmed what they already knew was true. Allah says in the Quran, as a refutation to anyone who claims that these stories were copied, “Neither did you read any book before it (this Quran) nor did you write anything with your right hand. In that case, indeed the followers of falsehood might have doubted”. Also, it was known that the Prophet Mohammad never met any religious scholar or learned about religion before his prophethood. Although Bohaira, a Christian Monk recognized him as a prophet when he saw him due to his description in the Bible, they only had one brief meeting which could not have been enough to transmit the information about past civilizations contained in the Quran. As another example of a Quranic refutation of false claims against it, Allah says, “And indeed We know that they say it is only a human being who teaches him. The language of the man they refer to is foreign, while this (the Quran) is in clear Arabic.” The Quran contains refutation of claims made by the Jews and Christians about Jesus that he was crucified and was a god and also about Solomon that he was a sorcerer. Other prophets’ stories that were not mentioned in the Torah or the Bible such as the stories of Hud, Saleh and Shoiab are also mentioned in the Quran as well as accounts of the afterlife and descriptions of Hell and Paradise which were not mentioned in Bible or the Torah.
The Quran also contained information about the then-unknown future such as the fact that the prophet’s uncle, Abu Lahab would never become a Muslim even though that man was alive when the verses were revealed and many others converted. He did not heed warning and believe in the prophet’s message or even claim that he is a believer to refute the Quranic truth. Similarly, the Quran narrates that the Romans will defeat the Persians after being defeated by them and events unfolded accordingly after that.
The complementary meanings and harmonic legal system contained in the Quran are also testaments to its divinity, - “Do they not then consider the Quran carefully? Had it been from other than Allah they would surely have found therein many a contradiction.”
Another Quranic miracle is its strong influence on people’s souls and acknowledged by its supporters as well as its opponents. Even non-Arabic speakers are enthralled by it and can discern that it is not human speech. After Alwaleed Ibn AlMugherah, AbuJahal’s uncle and of the most stubborn opponents of the prophet, heard the Quran being recited, he said to his people, Bani Maghzoom, “I have heard speech from Mohammed which is not human or demonic - it has a beautiful sound and lovely tone. Its meanings are both fruitful and abundant. It overcomes whatever opposes it and nothing overcomes it.”
History testifies to the results of following Quranic principles and striving towards its noble goals and wise instructions. It raised Islamic civilization to great heights in the areas of worship, ethics, knowledge, and human dignity. They became masters of the land although they were originally divided, ignorant, and illiterate.
Regarding the system of Islamic law based on the Quranic verses and prophetic traditions, the following aspects can be clearly observed:
1-Justice and fairness - Islam forbade injustice beginning with Allah forbidding it upon himself, and extending to the smallest human actions imaginable.
2-An injunction to protect the human rights of all Muslims, with special attention to security for themselves, physical, financial, social, and personal freedom and security.
3- Islamic law is both distinctive and comprehensive in nature, while being applicable to all people’s lives in different ways.
4-It encourages people to have care and passion for each other, with injunctions of charity, almsgiving, patience, fostering community relations, and good behavior towards parents. Allah says, “Worship Allah and join none with Him (in worship); and do good to parents, kinsfolk , orphans, the poor, the neighbor who is of kin, the neighbor who is not of kin, the companion by your side, the wayfarer (you meet) and those who you are responsible for.”
5-It is a fair system which explicitly treats people as equals and does not differentiate between them except on the basis of how well they practice their religion, in some matters.
6- Following Islamic law put oneself at peace as it unites his mind, emotions and body which is the reason for Muslims’ contentment.
We can observe that the number of Muslims has increased exponentially after the death of Prophet Mohammad, although they did not personally witness many of his miracles and signs of his prophecy. Their numbers are continuously increasing because of the Quran and the mercy, justice and convenience of the Islamic laws and their effects on the ethics and values of those who choose to abide by them.
And after considering all of the proofs of Mohammad’s prophecy, it is time for those who did not believe in him to reconsider their perspectives. Allah says, O mankind - Verily, there has come to you a Messenger with the truth from your Lord, so believe in him, it is better for you. But if you disbelieve, then certainly to Allah belongs all that in heavens and earth. And Allah is Ever All-Knowing, All-Wise”.