Selected Logical Proofs of the Creators Existence from the Quran and their Relationship with Islamic Faith

Translated by : A.J. Kassem

 

 

 

Opening Prayer

 

In the name of Allah, praise to Allah, Allah is greater [than all], glory be to Allah all day and all night

There is no strength or power except with Allah, the Creator of everything, and He is over everything.

I bear witness that there is nothing worthy of being worshipped but Allah, the One, the Subduer, the Lord of the Heavens and the Earth and all that is between them, the Mighty and Forgiving.

I bear witness that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah.

May Allah's blessings and peace be upon him and the rest of Allah's messengers and their followers.

Oh Allah, guide us, grant us success, correct our affairs, make us happy, complete our grace, and make us blessed wherever we are.

 

 

Introduction

 

Allah’s created people in this world to test them; He who believes will be given Paradise on the Day of Judgment, and whoever disbelieves will be sentenced to Hell on the Day of Judgment, as mentioned in the following translated verses from the Quran:

 

﴿تَبَارَكَ الَّذِي بِيَدِهِ الْمُلْكُ وَهُوَ عَلَى كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ (١) الَّذِي خَلَقَ الْمَوْتَ وَالْحَيَاةَ لِيَبْلُوَكُمْ أَيُّكُمْ أَحْسَنُ عَمَلًا وَهُوَ الْعَزِيزُ الْغَفُورُ﴾ [الملك: 1-3] 

Blessed is He in whose hand is dominion, and He is over all things competent - [It is He] who created death and life to test you [as to] which of you is best in deed - and He is the Exalted in Might, the Forgiving} 67:1-2

 

﴿هُوَ الَّذِي ‌خَلَقَكُمْ ‌فَمِنْكُمْ كَافِرٌ وَمِنْكُمْ مُؤْمِنٌ وَاللَّهُ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ بَصِيرٌ﴾ [التغابن: 2] 

{It is He who created you, and among you is the disbeliever, and among you is the believer. And Allah, of what you do, is Seeing.} 64:2

 

﴿إِنَّ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ لَهُمْ جَنَّاتُ النَّعِيمِ ﴾ [لقمان: 8] 

{Indeed, those who believe and do righteous deeds - for them are the Gardens of Pleasure.} 31:8

 

﴿وَلِلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا بِرَبِّهِمْ عَذَابُ جَهَنَّمَ وَبِئْسَ الْمَصِيرُ﴾ [الملك: 6] 

{And for those who disbelieved in their Lord is the punishment of Hell, and wretched is the destination.} 67:6

 

Because of the realities of death, judgment, and the afterlife, issues of faith are the most important issues, because the ways that we navigate this life and the states of our souls forever depend on them.

The importance of all other matters have a specific expiration dates, either with their resolution or upon death. If the issue of faith in these realities is of this much importance, then its rational proofs must be clear.

 

Part 1: Proof of Allah’s Existence

 

Indeed, the evidence for faith in Allah is present in abundance and easy to comprehend. 

There is no other logical explanation for the existence of so many perfect creations of varying complexity other than they exist by the will of something greater than all of them – the Creator.  This argument is mentioned in the Quran:

 

﴿أَمْ خُلِقُوا مِنْ غَيْرِ شَيْءٍ أَمْ هُمُ الْخَالِقُونَ﴾ [الطور: 35] 

{Or were they created by nothing, or were they the creators [of themselves]?} 52:35

 

All alternative conclusions to the truth that we are all Allah’s creations are impossible, as mentioned in the above verse.  Specifically, it is impossible that all that is in existence came in to being without the presence, will, and design of the ultimate reason for their existence, which is Allah. Similarly, it is also impossible that they were brought in to existence by another created being because that being, itself, was powerless to bring itself in to existence. Therefore, the only remaining logical explanation is that all that exists has One Creator, Who created everything in the universe and gives life to and takes it from all living creatures. Consider the following meanings of Quranic verses:

 

{We have created you, so why do you not believe? Have you seen that which you ejaculate? Is it you who creates it, or are We the Creator? We have decreed death among you, and We are not to be overridden. In that, We will change your likenesses and produce you in that [form] which you do not know. And you have already known the first creation, so will you not remember? And have you seen that [seed] which you sow? Is it you who makes it grow, or are We the grower? If We willed, We could make it [dry] debris, and you would remain in wonder, [Saying], "Indeed, we are [now] in debt; Rather, [they say], we have been deprived." And, have you seen the water that you drink? Is it you who brought it down from the clouds, or is it We who bring it down? If We willed, We could make it bitter, so why are you not grateful? And, have you seen the fire that you ignite?Is it you who produced its tree, or are We the producer? We have made it a reminder and provision for the travelers. So, exalt the name of your Lord, the Great.} 56:57-74

 

If the Creator did all of this, then anyone who claims to be deserving of worship should be able to prove that he or she can change or reverse cosmic laws and:

  • Cause rain to rise
  • Make all salty seas fresh and all fresh rivers salty
  • Cause the sun to rise from the west
  • Stop all winds in the whole world
  • Bring forth all flowers and fruits of trees underground instead of over ground
  • Give wings to land animals of the world to fly

 

The Qur’an mentions two examples of people who dared to order people to worship them:

 

  1. The Emporer Nimrod:

 

﴿أَلَمْ تَرَ إِلَى الَّذِي حَاجَّ إِبْرَاهِيمَ فِي رَبِّهِ أَنْ آتَاهُ اللَّهُ الْمُلْكَ إِذْ قَالَ إِبْرَاهِيمُ رَبِّيَ الَّذِي يُحْيِي وَيُمِيتُ قَالَ أَنَا أُحْيِي وَأُمِيتُ قَالَ إِبْرَاهِيمُ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ يَأْتِي بِالشَّمْسِ مِنَ الْمَشْرِقِ فَأْتِ بِهَا مِنَ الْمَغْرِبِ ‌فَبُهِتَ الَّذِي كَفَرَ وَاللَّهُ لَا يَهْدِي الْقَوْمَ الظَّالِمِينَ (٢٥٨)﴾ [البقرة: 258] 

{Have you not considered the one who argued with Abraham about his Lord [merely] because Allah had given him kingship? When Abraham said, "My Lord is the one who gives life and causes death," he said, "I give life and cause death." Abraham said, "Indeed, Allah brings up the sun from the east, so bring it up from the west." So the disbeliever was overwhelmed [by astonishment], and Allah does not guide the wrongdoing people.} 2:258

 

  1. The Pharaoh of Egypt

﴿فَكَذَّبَ وَعَصَى (٢١) ثُمَّ أَدْبَرَ يَسْعَى (٢٢) فَحَشَرَ فَنَادَى (٢٣) فَقَالَ أَنَا رَبُّكُمُ الْأَعْلَى (٢٤) فَأَخَذَهُ اللَّهُ نَكَالَ الْآخِرَةِ وَالْأُولَى (٢٥) إِنَّ فِي ذَلِكَ لَعِبْرَةً لِمَنْ يَخْشَى﴾ [النازعات: 21-26] 

{Pharaoh denied and disobeyed. Then he turned back, striving. And he gathered [his people] and called out and said, "I am your lord, the most high." So, Allah seized him with an exemplary punishment for the last and the first [transgression]. Indeed in that is a warning for whoever would fear [Allah].} 79:20-26

 

Question: Can there possibly be multiple creators?

Answer: It is impossible for there to be multiple creators because, in that case, there would be conflicting laws of nature, resulting in chaos.  Consider the following meanings of Quranic verses:

 

﴿لَوْ كَانَ فِيهِمَا آلِهَةٌ إِلَّا اللَّهُ ‌لَفَسَدَتَا فَسُبْحَانَ اللَّهِ رَبِّ الْعَرْشِ عَمَّا يَصِفُونَ﴾ [الأنبياء: 22] 

{Had there been within the heavens and Earth gods besides Allah, they would have been ruined. So exalted is Allah, Lord of the Throne, above what they describe.} 21:22

﴿ إِنَّ اللَّهَ ‌يُمْسِكُ ‌السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ أَنْ تَزُولَا وَلَئِنْ زَالَتَا إِنْ أَمْسَكَهُمَا مِنْ أَحَدٍ مِنْ بَعْدِهِ إِنَّهُ كَانَ حَلِيمًا غَفُورًا﴾ [فاطر: 41] 

 

{Indeed, Allah prevents the heavens and the earth from disappearing. And if they should cease, no one could put them [in place] after Him. Indeed, He is Forbearing and Forgiving.} 35:41

 

﴿وَإِنْ يَمْسَسْكَ اللَّهُ بِضُرٍّ فَلَا كَاشِفَ لَهُ إِلَّا هُوَ وَإِنْ يَمْسَسْكَ بِخَيْرٍ فَهُوَ عَلَى كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ (١٧) ‌وَهُوَ ‌الْقَاهِرُ فَوْقَ عِبَادِهِ وَهُوَ الْحَكِيمُ الْخَبِيرُ﴾ [الأنعام: 17-18] 

{And, if Allah should touch you with adversity, there is no remover of it except Him. And if He touches you with good - then He is over all things competent.} 6:17

 

The order and balance that we observe in the universe and its laws and processes is evidence of the intelligent design of an All-Knowing Creator.  The following are some examples:

  • There exists order in biological systems of species in that each species of plants and animals is distinct from other species and the males and females of each species have varying characteristics.  
  • Each type of creature has a method of reproduction in fixed stages of certain quantities. For example, the number of offspring for insects and rabbits differs from that for humans and birds.
  • Each species and plant type has its own sources of nourishment and patterns of sleep, rest and dormancy.  
  • The undeniable fact that all observable life has a definite beginning and end with fixed stages in-between birth and death.
  • The orderly progression of the sun, moon, and stars is a perfect reference for humans to be able to accurately navigate and measure time.

 

The perfection and orderliness of creation and existence of observable universal laws of physics are evidence of the uniqueness and perfection of the One Creator, as it would be impossible to create perfect systems for a Creator that was less than perfect, or for Creators with conflicting wills. Consider the meanings of the following Quranic verses:

 

﴿تَبَارَكَ الَّذِي نَزَّلَ الْفُرْقَانَ عَلَى عَبْدِهِ لِيَكُونَ لِلْعَالَمِينَ نَذِيرًا (١) الَّذِي لَهُ مُلْكُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ وَلَمْ يَتَّخِذْ وَلَدًا وَلَمْ يَكُنْ لَهُ شَرِيكٌ فِي الْمُلْكِ وَخَلَقَ كُلَّ شَيْءٍ ‌فَقَدَّرَهُ ‌تَقْدِيرًا﴾ [الفرقان: 1-2] 

{Blessed is He who sent down the Criterion upon His Servant that he may be to the worlds a warner - He to whom belongs the dominion of the heavens and the earth and who has not taken a son and has not had a partner in dominion and has created each thing and determined it with [precise] determination.} 25:1-2

 

 

﴿أَلَمْ نَخْلُقْكُمْ مِنْ مَاءٍ مَهِينٍ (٢٠) فَجَعَلْنَاهُ فِي قَرَارٍ مَكِينٍ (٢١) إِلَى قَدَرٍ مَعْلُومٍ (٢٢) فَقَدَرْنَا فَنِعْمَ الْقَادِرُونَ (٢٣) وَيْلٌ يَوْمَئِذٍ لِلْمُكَذِّبِينَ (٢٤)﴾ [المرسلات: 20-24] 

{Did We not create you from a liquid disdained (semen)? And, We placed it in a firm lodging for a known extent. And We determined [it], and excellent [are We] to determine. Woe, that Day, to the deniers.} 77:20-24

 

 

﴿‌فَالِقُ الْإِصْبَاحِ وَجَعَلَ اللَّيْلَ سَكَنًا وَالشَّمْسَ وَالْقَمَرَ حُسْبَانًا ذَلِكَ تَقْدِيرُ الْعَزِيزِ الْعَلِيمِ (٩٦)﴾ [الأنعام: 96] 

{[He is] the cleaver of daybreak and has made the night for rest and the sun and moon for calculation. That is the determination of the Exalted in Might, the Knowing.} 6:96

 

﴿اللَّهُ الَّذِي رَفَعَ السَّمَاوَاتِ بِغَيْرِ عَمَدٍ تَرَوْنَهَا ثُمَّ اسْتَوَى عَلَى الْعَرْشِ وَسَخَّرَ الشَّمْسَ وَالْقَمَرَ كُلٌّ يَجْرِي لِأَجَلٍ مُسَمًّى يُدَبِّرُ الْأَمْرَ يُفَصِّلُ الْآيَاتِ لَعَلَّكُمْ بِلِقَاءِ رَبِّكُمْ ‌تُوقِنُونَ (٢)﴾ [الرعد: 2] 

{It is Allah who erected the heavens without pillars that you [can] see; then He established Himself above the Throne and made subject the sun and the moon, each running [its course] for a specified term. He arranges [each] matter; He details the signs that you may, of the meeting with your Lord, be certain.} 13:2

 

﴿إِنَّ رَبَّكُمُ اللَّهُ الَّذِي خَلَقَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ فِي سِتَّةِ أَيَّامٍ ثُمَّ اسْتَوَى عَلَى الْعَرْشِ يُغْشِي اللَّيْلَ النَّهَارَ يَطْلُبُهُ ‌حَثِيثًا وَالشَّمْسَ وَالْقَمَرَ وَالنُّجُومَ مُسَخَّرَاتٍ بِأَمْرِهِ أَلَا لَهُ الْخَلْقُ وَالْأَمْرُ تَبَارَكَ اللَّهُ رَبُّ الْعَالَمِينَ﴾ [الأعراف: 54] 

{Indeed, your Lord is Allah, who created the heavens and earth in six days and then established Himself above the Throne. He covers the night with the day, [another night] chasing it rapidly; and [He created] the sun, the moon, and the stars, subjected by His command. Unquestionably, His is the creation and the command; blessed is Allah, Lord of the worlds.} 7:54

 

﴿قُلْ مَنْ رَبُّ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ قُلِ اللَّهُ قُلْ أَفَاتَّخَذْتُمْ مِنْ دُونِهِ أَوْلِيَاءَ لَا يَمْلِكُونَ لِأَنْفُسِهِمْ نَفْعًا وَلَا ضَرًّا قُلْ هَلْ يَسْتَوِي الْأَعْمَى وَالْبَصِيرُ أَمْ هَلْ تَسْتَوِي الظُّلُمَاتُ وَالنُّورُ أَمْ جَعَلُوا لِلَّهِ شُرَكَاءَ ‌خَلَقُوا ‌كَخَلْقِهِ فَتَشَابَهَ الْخَلْقُ عَلَيْهِمْ قُلِ اللَّهُ خَالِقُ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ وَهُوَ الْوَاحِدُ الْقَهَّارُ (١٦)﴾ [الرعد: 16] 

{Say, "Who is Lord of the heavens and earth?" Say, "Allah." Say, "Have you then taken besides Him allies not possessing [even] for themselves any benefit or any harm?" Say, "Is the blind equivalent to the seeing? Or is darkness equivalent to light? Or have they attributed to Allah partners who created like His creation so that the creation [of each] seemed similar to them?" Say, "Allah is the Creator of all things, and He is the One, the Prevailing."} 13:16

 

Once we recognize the truth that there can only be One Creator, we may then know that only He is the Owner and King of all that has been created.  Consider the following meanings of Quranic verses:

 

﴿خَلَقَكُمْ مِنْ نَفْسٍ وَاحِدَةٍ ثُمَّ جَعَلَ مِنْهَا زَوْجَهَا وَأَنْزَلَ لَكُمْ مِنَ الْأَنْعَامِ ثَمَانِيَةَ أَزْوَاجٍ يَخْلُقُكُمْ فِي بُطُونِ أُمَّهَاتِكُمْ خَلْقًا مِنْ بَعْدِ خَلْقٍ ‌فِي ‌ظُلُمَاتٍ ثَلَاثٍ ذَلِكُمُ اللَّهُ رَبُّكُمْ لَهُ الْمُلْكُ لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا هُوَ فَأَنَّى تُصْرَفُونَ﴾ [الزمر: 6] 

{That is Allah, your Lord; to Him belongs dominion. There is no deity except Him, so how are you averted [from this truth]?} 39:6

 

﴿لِلَّهِ مُلْكُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ يَخْلُقُ مَا يَشَاءُ ‌يَهَبُ﴾ [الشورى: 49]

{To Allah belongs the dominion of the heavens and the earth; He creates what he wills.} 42:49

 

Similarly, it follows from the affirmation that there is One Creator that He is also the Provider of sustenance for all creation, because it is He that creates them and their sustenance. Allah created us and everything that we eat and use from water, plants, animals, and materials. Consider the meanings of the following Quranic verses:

 

﴿وَلَقَدْ مَكَّنَّاكُمْ فِي الْأَرْضِ وَجَعَلْنَا لَكُمْ فِيهَا مَعَايِشَ قَلِيلًا مَا تَشْكُرُونَ (١٠)﴾ [الأعراف: 10] 

{And, We have certainly established you upon the earth and made for you therein ways of livelihood [but] hardly are you grateful.} 7:10

 

Those who contemplate these created livelihoods will find that they are continuously regenerating. The means of life sustenance such as water, plants, fruits, cattle, air, sunlight, night, day, and inanimate objects are constantly present in our environment. Within the human being as well, we witness diligent care for the growth of each person from zygote to fetus to child to adult.  Throughout all of these stages, the involuntary processes of life such as breathing, the beating of the heart and blood circulation, and circadian rhythms continue without pause without a person giving them attention. These are all evidence that there is a higher power that created all things and all processes with perfection.  In the Quran, Allah mentions the rational significance of these continuous phenomena:

 

﴿اللَّهُ الَّذِي جَعَلَ لَكُمُ الْأَرْضَ قَرَارًا وَالسَّمَاءَ بِنَاءً وَصَوَّرَكُمْ فَأَحْسَنَ صُوَرَكُمْ وَرَزَقَكُمْ مِنَ الطَّيِّبَاتِ ذَلِكُمُ اللَّهُ رَبُّكُمْ فَتَبَارَكَ اللَّهُ رَبُّ الْعَالَمِينَ﴾ [غافر: 64] 

{It is Allah who made for you the earth a place of settlement and the sky a ceiling and formed you and perfected your forms and provided you with good things. That is Allah, your Lord; then blessed is Allah, Lord of the worlds.} 40:64

 

﴿كُلُوا مِنْ رِزْقِ رَبِّكُمْ وَاشْكُرُوا لَهُ بَلْدَةٌ طَيِّبَةٌ وَرَبٌّ غَفُورٌ﴾ [سبأ: 15] 

{Eat from the provisions of your Lord and be grateful to Him. A good land [have you], and a forgiving Lord.} 34:15

 

﴿اللَّهُ الَّذِي خَلَقَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ وَأَنْزَلَ مِنَ السَّمَاءِ مَاءً فَأَخْرَجَ بِهِ مِنَ الثَّمَرَاتِ رِزْقًا لَكُمْ وَسَخَّرَ لَكُمُ الْفُلْكَ لِتَجْرِيَ فِي الْبَحْرِ بِأَمْرِهِ وَسَخَّرَ لَكُمُ الْأَنْهَارَ (٣٢) وَسَخَّرَ لَكُمُ الشَّمْسَ وَالْقَمَرَ دَائِبَيْنِ وَسَخَّرَ لَكُمُ اللَّيْلَ وَالنَّهَارَ﴾ [إبراهيم: 32-33] 

{It is Allah who created the heavens and the earth and sent down rain from the sky and produced thereby some fruits as provision for you and subjected for you the ships to sail through the sea by His command and subjected for you the rivers. And He subjected for you the sun and the moon, continuous [in orbit], and subjected for you the night and the day.} 14:32-33

 

Likewise, the recognition of the One Creator is a direct acknowledgment that this Creator has the highest power over and knowledge of all that pertains to the creation as evidenced in Allah’s beautiful names and divine attributes that are mentioned in the Quran:

 

﴿سَبِّحِ اسْمَ رَبِّكَ الْأَعْلَى (١) الَّذِي خَلَقَ فَسَوَّى (٢) وَالَّذِي قَدَّرَ فَهَدَى (٣) وَالَّذِي أَخْرَجَ الْمَرْعَى (٤) فَجَعَلَهُ غُثَاءً أَحْوَى (٥)﴾ [الأعلى: 1-5] 

{Exalt the name of your Lord, the Most High, Who created and proportioned, and who destined and [then] guided, and who brings out the pasture} 87:1-4

 

﴿هُوَ اللَّهُ الَّذِي لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا هُوَ الْمَلِكُ الْقُدُّوسُ السَّلَامُ الْمُؤْمِنُ الْمُهَيْمِنُ الْعَزِيزُ الْجَبَّارُ الْمُتَكَبِّرُ سُبْحَانَ اللَّهِ عَمَّا يُشْرِكُونَ (٢٣) هُوَ اللَّهُ الْخَالِقُ الْبَارِئُ الْمُصَوِّرُ لَهُ الْأَسْمَاءُ الْحُسْنَى يُسَبِّحُ لَهُ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ وَهُوَ الْعَزِيزُ الْحَكِيمُ﴾ [الحشر: 23-24] 

{Exalted is Allah above whatever they associate with Him. He is Allah, the Creator, the Inventor, the Fashioner; to Him belong the best names. Whatever is in the heavens and earth is exalting Him. And He is the Exalted in Might, the Wise.} 59:23-24

 

If were to summarize the conclusions of the logic proofs of the existence of Allah in the Quran as mentioned, so far, we would find them as follows:

 

1) The existence of the Creator

2) The Creator controls everything without any partner(s)

3) The Creator is the owner of all of His creatures

4) The Creator is the Provider of Sustenance for all livelihoods

5) The Creator provides sustenance in a continuously regenerating cycle

6) The Creator is the Most High Who has the most beautiful names

 

Once a person knows, with certainty, the above truths, then that person should come to the conclusion, based on them, that nothing else has the right to be worshipped but the Creator and nothing else deserves complete devotion, as evidenced in the meanings of the following Quranic verses:

 

{That is Allah, your Lord; there is no deity except Him, the Creator of all things, so worship Him.} 6:102

 

﴿يَاأَيُّهَا النَّاسُ اعْبُدُوا رَبَّكُمُ الَّذِي خَلَقَكُمْ﴾ [البقرة: 21] 

{O mankind, worship your Lord, who created you and those before you} 2:21

 

Acknowledgment that there is a Lord Who manages all affairs should also lead a person to acknowledge the divinity of that Lord.

 

﴿إِنَّ رَبَّكُمُ اللَّهُ الَّذِي خَلَقَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ فِي سِتَّةِ أَيَّامٍ ثُمَّ اسْتَوَى عَلَى الْعَرْشِ يُدَبِّرُ الْأَمْرَ مَا مِنْ شَفِيعٍ إِلَّا مِنْ بَعْدِ إِذْنِهِ ذَلِكُمُ اللَّهُ رَبُّكُمْ فَاعْبُدُوهُ أَفَلَا تَذَكَّرُونَ (٣)﴾ [يونس: 3] 

{Indeed, your Lord is Allah, who created the heavens and the earth in six days and then established Himself above the Throne, arranging the matter [of His creation]. There is no intercessor except after His permission. That is Allah, your Lord, so worship Him.} 10:3

 

Furthermore, acknowledgment of that this Lord is the Provider and Sustainer that created regenerative sustenance for all creatures should lead the mind to acknowledge the divinity of this Provider, as mentioned in the meanings of the following Quranic verses:

 

﴿فَلْيَعْبُدُوا رَبَّ هَذَا الْبَيْتِ (٣) الَّذِي أَطْعَمَهُمْ مِنْ جُوعٍ وَآمَنَهُمْ مِنْ خَوْفٍ﴾ [قريش: 3-4] 

{Let them worship the Lord of this House, Who has fed them, [saving them] from hunger and made them safe, [saving them] from fear.} 106:3-4

 

﴿وَيَعْبُدُونَ مِنْ دُونِ اللَّهِ مَا لَا يَمْلِكُ لَهُمْ رِزْقًا مِنَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ شَيْئًا وَلَا يَسْتَطِيعُونَ﴾ [النحل: 73] 

{And they worship besides Allah that which does not possess for them [the power of] provision from the heavens and the earth at all, and [in fact], they are unable.} 16:73

 

﴿يَاأَيُّهَا النَّاسُ اذْكُرُوا نِعْمَتَ اللَّهِ عَلَيْكُمْ هَلْ مِنْ خَالِقٍ غَيْرُ اللَّهِ يَرْزُقُكُمْ مِنَ السَّمَاءِ وَالْأَرْضِ لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا هُوَ فَأَنَّى تُؤْفَكُونَ﴾ [فاطر: 3] 

{O mankind, remember the favor of Allah upon you. Is there any creator other than Allah who provides for you from the heaven and earth? There is no deity except Him, so how are you deluded?} 35:3

 

﴿إِنَّ الَّذِينَ تَعْبُدُونَ مِنْ دُونِ اللَّهِ لَا يَمْلِكُونَ لَكُمْ رِزْقًا فَابْتَغُوا عِنْدَ اللَّهِ الرِّزْقَ وَاعْبُدُوهُ وَاشْكُرُوا لَهُ إِلَيْهِ تُرْجَعُونَ﴾ [العنكبوت: 17] 

{Indeed, those you worship besides Allah do not possess for you [the power of] provision. So seek from Allah provision and worship Him and be grateful to Him. To Him you will be returned.} 29:17

 

Acknowledgment that the Creator is the Owner of all Creatures and all that exists should lead to acknowledgment of the exclusive divinity of this Owner, as mentioned in the meanings of the following translated Quranic verses:

 

﴿يَخْلُقُكُمْ فِي بُطُونِ أُمَّهَاتِكُمْ خَلْقًا مِنْ بَعْدِ خَلْقٍ فِي ظُلُمَاتٍ ثَلَاثٍ ذَلِكُمُ اللَّهُ رَبُّكُمْ لَهُ الْمُلْكُ لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا هُوَ فَأَنَّى تُصْرَفُونَ﴾ [الزمر: 6] 

{He creates you in the wombs of your mothers, creation after creation, within three darknesses. That is Allah, your Lord; to Him belongs dominion. There is no deity except Him, so how are you averted?} 39:6

 

﴿يُولِجُ اللَّيْلَ فِي النَّهَارِ وَيُولِجُ النَّهَارَ فِي اللَّيْلِ وَسَخَّرَ الشَّمْسَ وَالْقَمَرَ كُلٌّ يَجْرِي لِأَجَلٍ مُسَمًّى ذَلِكُمُ اللَّهُ رَبُّكُمْ لَهُ الْمُلْكُ وَالَّذِينَ تَدْعُونَ مِنْ دُونِهِ مَا يَمْلِكُونَ مِنْ قِطْمِيرٍ﴾ [فاطر: 13] 

{He causes the night to enter the day, and He causes the day to enter the night and has subjected the sun and the moon - each running [its course] for a specified term. That is Allah, your Lord; to Him belongs sovereignty. And those whom you invoke other than Him do not possess [as much as] the membrane of a date seed.} 35:13

 

 

Acknowledgment of the Creator necessitates the acknowledgment that He is the Most High, leading the mind to acknowledge the divinity of the Supreme and Only True God, as mentioned in the following translated Quranic verse:

 

﴿ذَلِكَ بِأَنَّ اللَّهَ هُوَ الْحَقُّ وَأَنَّ مَا يَدْعُونَ مِنْ دُونِهِ الْبَاطِلُ وَأَنَّ اللَّهَ هُوَ الْعَلِيُّ الْكَبِيرُ (٣٠)﴾ [لقمان: 30] 

{That is because Allah is the Truth, and that what they call upon other than Him is falsehood, and because Allah is the Most High, the Grand.} 31:30

 

Each one of the above arguments is sufficient logical proof of the existence of Allah and His exclusive right to be worshipped, since once a person acknowledges Allah’s existence, it necessarily follows that there is no other true god but Him, which means that only He deserves to be worshipped, as mentioned in the meanings of the following Quranic verses:

 

﴿قُلْ مَنْ يَرْزُقُكُمْ مِنَ السَّمَاءِ وَالْأَرْضِ أَمَّنْ يَمْلِكُ السَّمْعَ وَالْأَبْصَارَ وَمَنْ يُخْرِجُ الْحَيَّ مِنَ الْمَيِّتِ وَيُخْرِجُ الْمَيِّتَ مِنَ الْحَيِّ وَمَنْ يُدَبِّرُ الْأَمْرَ فَسَيَقُولُونَ اللَّهُ فَقُلْ أَفَلَا تَتَّقُونَ (٣١) فَذَلِكُمُ اللَّهُ رَبُّكُمُ الْحَقُّ فَمَاذَا بَعْدَ الْحَقِّ إِلَّا الضَّلَالُ فَأَنَّى تُصْرَفُونَ﴾ [يونس: 31-32] 

{Say, "Who provides for you from the heaven and the earth? Or who controls hearing and sight and who brings the living out of the dead and brings the dead out of the living and who arranges [every] matter?" They will say, "Allah," so say, "Then will you not fear Him?" For that is Allah, your Lord, the Truth. And what can be beyond truth except error? So how are you averted?} 10:31-32

 

﴿اللَّهُ الَّذِي خَلَقَكُمْ ثُمَّ رَزَقَكُمْ ثُمَّ يُمِيتُكُمْ ثُمَّ يُحْيِيكُمْ هَلْ مِنْ شُرَكَائِكُمْ مَنْ يَفْعَلُ مِنْ ذَلِكُمْ مِنْ شَيْءٍ سُبْحَانَهُ وَتَعَالَى عَمَّا يُشْرِكُونَ﴾ [الروم: 40] 

{Allah is the one who created you, then provided for you, then will cause you to die, and then will give you life. Are there any of your "partners" who does anything of that? Exalted is He and high above what they associate with Him.} 30:40

 

﴿يَاأَيُّهَا النَّاسُ اعْبُدُوا رَبَّكُمُ الَّذِي خَلَقَكُمْ وَالَّذِينَ مِنْ قَبْلِكُمْ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَتَّقُونَ (٢١) الَّذِي جَعَلَ لَكُمُ الْأَرْضَ فِرَاشًا وَالسَّمَاءَ بِنَاءً وَأَنْزَلَ مِنَ السَّمَاءِ مَاءً فَأَخْرَجَ بِهِ مِنَ الثَّمَرَاتِ رِزْقًا لَكُمْ فَلَا تَجْعَلُوا لِلَّهِ أَنْدَادًا وَأَنْتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ﴾ [البقرة: 21-22] 

{O mankind, worship your Lord, who created you and those before you, that you may become righteous - [He] who made for you the earth a bed [spread out] and the sky a ceiling and sent down from the sky, rain and brought forth thereby fruits as provision for you. So do not attribute to Allah equals while you know} 2:21-22

 

 

Part 2: Belief in the Day of Judgment, Revelation, and True Religion

 

Since the Creator is Most Wise and infinitely perfect, it would be impossible for Allah create people with hearts that are aware of the difference between good and evil and not associate any consequences with the outcomes of these choices, leaving people without accountability.

Consider the example of employees who faithfully perform their job duties. Their material reward for their performance is payment in the form of salaries and bonuses. Also, they may be granted certain allowances and privileges such as vacations and access to certain facilities. They may even be promoted to positions of greater status and greater rewards. Such is the example of righteous believers in the truth whose rewards extend beyond material and temporary benefits to success in life and a favorable judgment and reward on the Last Day.

Similarly, it is common knowledge that responsible adults who break laws and exhibit harmful behavior with malice are subject to penal procedures and punishments, such as financial censure, imprisonment, and even capital punishment in accordance with local and national laws.  It is even more sensible that those people who knowingly reject guidance and oppress and harm others will be subject to divine recompense for this, even if they were to avoid prosecution by human authorities during life on Earth.

Therefore, if it is accepted that the general principle for human society is that those who do good are entitled to fair treatment, opportunity and rewards and those who violate basic rules of behavior in society are subject to restrictions and punishments, and Allah’s existence and power are true reality, then it is even more evident that there must be divine accountability and consequence for decisions and behaviors that transcends the limitations of human justice, with the case of each person considered on an individual basis with attention to all events, factors, and outcomes as evidence. In numerous verses of the Quran, Allah informs us in clear terms, just as He did in previous revelations, that we are responsible for our own intentions and will be judged and dealt with accordingly. Each person, after coming to know the truth of these warnings, is responsible for either giving them importance in his or her life or disregarding them and living with no self-restraint nor regard for others. For those who submit to the guidance and exercise discipline and determination to try to live as the True God instructed, they will be rewarded with His everlasting grace and mercy, and those who obstinately refuse the guidance after clearly understanding that it is true and correct will have none to blame except for themselves for the consequences of their actions. Consider the following meanings of Quranic verses:

 

﴿وَكُلَّ إِنْسَانٍ أَلْزَمْنَاهُ طَائِرَهُ فِي عُنُقِهِ وَنُخْرِجُ لَهُ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ كِتَابًا يَلْقَاهُ مَنْشُورًا (١٣) اقْرَأْ كِتَابَكَ كَفَى بِنَفْسِكَ الْيَوْمَ عَلَيْكَ حَسِيبًا﴾ [الإسراء: 13-14] 

{And [for] every person We have imposed his fate upon his neck, and We will produce for him on the Day of Resurrection a record which he will encounter spread open. [It will be said], "Read your record. Sufficient is yourself against you this Day as accountant." Whoever is guided is only guided for [the benefit of] his soul. And whoever errs only errs against it. And no bearer of burdens will bear the burden of another. And never would We punish until We sent a messenger.} 17:13-15

 

﴿فَالْحُكْمُ لِلَّهِ الْعَلِيِّ الْكَبِيرِ﴾ [غافر: 12] 

{So the judgement is for Allah, the Most High, the Grand.} 40:12

 

 

﴿إِنَّ لِلْمُتَّقِينَ عِنْدَ رَبِّهِمْ جَنَّاتِ النَّعِيمِ (٣٤) أَفَنَجْعَلُ الْمُسْلِمِينَ كَالْمُجْرِمِينَ (٣٥) مَا لَكُمْ كَيْفَ تَحْكُمُونَ﴾ [القلم: 34-36] 

{Such is the punishment [of this world]. And the punishment of the Hereafter is greater, if they only knew. Indeed, for the righteous with their Lord are the Gardens of Pleasure. Then, will We treat the Muslims like the criminals? What is [the matter] with you? How do you judge?} 68:33-36

 

﴿أَفَمَنْ كَانَ مُؤْمِنًا كَمَنْ كَانَ فَاسِقًا لَا يَسْتَوُونَ (١٨) أَمَّا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ فَلَهُمْ جَنَّاتُ الْمَأْوَى نُزُلًا بِمَا كَانُوا يَعْمَلُونَ (١٩) وَأَمَّا الَّذِينَ فَسَقُوا فَمَأْوَاهُمُ النَّارُ كُلَّمَا أَرَادُوا أَنْ يَخْرُجُوا مِنْهَا أُعِيدُوا فِيهَا وَقِيلَ لَهُمْ ذُوقُوا عَذَابَ النَّارِ الَّذِي كُنْتُمْ بِهِ تُكَذِّبُونَ﴾ [السجدة: 18-20] 

{Then, is one who was a believer like one who was defiantly disobedient? They are not equal. As for those who believed and did righteous deeds, for them will be the Gardens of Refuge as accommodation for what they used to do. But, as for those who defiantly disobeyed, their refuge is the Fire. Every time they wish to emerge from it, they will be returned to it while it is said to them, "Taste the punishment of the Fire which you used to deny."} 32:18-20

 

﴿وَمَا خَلَقْنَا السَّمَاءَ وَالْأَرْضَ وَمَا بَيْنَهُمَا بَاطِلًا ذَلِكَ ظَنُّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا فَوَيْلٌ لِلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا مِنَ النَّارِ (٢٧) أَمْ نَجْعَلُ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ كَالْمُفْسِدِينَ فِي الْأَرْضِ أَمْ نَجْعَلُ الْمُتَّقِينَ كَالْفُجَّارِ (٢٨)﴾ [ص: 27-28] 

{And We did not create the heaven and the earth and that between them aimlessly. That is the assumption of those who disbelieve, so woe to those who disbelieve from the Fire. Or should we treat those who believe and do righteous deeds like corrupters in the land? Or should We treat those who fear Allah like the wicked?} 38:27-28

 

﴿لَقَدْ خَلَقْنَا الْإِنْسَانَ فِي أَحْسَنِ تَقْوِيمٍ (٤) ثُمَّ رَدَدْنَاهُ أَسْفَلَ سَافِلِينَ (٥) إِلَّا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ فَلَهُمْ أَجْرٌ غَيْرُ مَمْنُونٍ (٦) فَمَا يُكَذِّبُكَ بَعْدُ بِالدِّينِ (٧) أَلَيْسَ اللَّهُ بِأَحْكَمِ الْحَاكِمِينَ﴾ [التين: 4-8] 

{We have certainly created man in the best of stature; Then We return him to the lowest of the low, except for those who believe and do righteous deeds, for they will have a reward uninterrupted. So what yet causes you to deny the Recompense? Is not Allah the most just of judges?} 95:4-8

 

Allah has promised all those who believed and did good deeds that no good deed is unrewarded, and Allah can multiply those rewards as much as He wants from His generosity. Consider the following meanings of Quranic verses:

 

﴿مَنْ يَعْمَلْ سُوءًا يُجْزَ بِهِ وَلَا يَجِدْ لَهُ مِنْ دُونِ اللَّهِ وَلِيًّا وَلَا نَصِيرًا (١٢٣) وَمَنْ يَعْمَلْ مِنَ الصَّالِحَاتِ مِنْ ذَكَرٍ أَوْ أُنْثَى وَهُوَ مُؤْمِنٌ فَأُولَئِكَ يَدْخُلُونَ الْجَنَّةَ وَلَا يُظْلَمُونَ نَقِيرًا (١٢٤)﴾ [النساء: 123-124] 

{Whoever does evil will be recompensed for it, and he will not find besides Allah a protector or a helper and, whoever does righteous deeds, whether male or female, while being a believer - those will enter Paradise and will not be wronged, [even as much as] the speck on a date seed.} 4:123-124

 

﴿إِنَّ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ إِنَّا لَا نُضِيعُ أَجْرَ مَنْ أَحْسَنَ عَمَلًا﴾ [الكهف: 30] 

{Indeed, those who have believed and done righteous deeds - indeed, We will not allow to be lost the reward of any who did well in deeds.} 18:30

 

﴿إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يُضِيعُ أَجْرَ الْمُحْسِنِينَ (١٢٠) وَلَا يُنْفِقُونَ نَفَقَةً صَغِيرَةً وَلَا كَبِيرَةً وَلَا يَقْطَعُونَ وَادِيًا إِلَّا كُتِبَ لَهُمْ لِيَجْزِيَهُمُ اللَّهُ أَحْسَنَ مَا كَانُوا يَعْمَلُونَ﴾ [التوبة: 120-121] 

{Indeed, Allah does not allow to be lost the reward of the doers of good. Nor do they spend an expenditure, small or large, or cross a valley but that it is registered for them that Allah may reward them for the best of what they were doing.} 9:120-121

 

As for those who did evil, then the recompense for an evil deed is evil consequence, except for those who repent and desist, then they may hope for forgiveness and mercy. Consider the following meanings of Quranic verses:

 

﴿وَلَا تَحْسَبَنَّ اللَّهَ غَافِلًا عَمَّا يَعْمَلُ الظَّالِمُونَ إِنَّمَا يُؤَخِّرُهُمْ لِيَوْمٍ تَشْخَصُ فِيهِ الْأَبْصَارُ﴾ [إبراهيم: 42] 

{And never think that Allah is unaware of what the wrongdoers do. He only delays them for a Day when eyes will stare [in horror].} 14:42

 

﴿أَمْ حَسِبَ الَّذِينَ اجْتَرَحُوا السَّيِّئَاتِ أَنْ نَجْعَلَهُمْ كَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ سَوَاءً مَحْيَاهُمْ وَمَمَاتُهُمْ سَاءَ مَا يَحْكُمُونَ (٢١) وَخَلَقَ اللَّهُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ بِالْحَقِّ وَلِتُجْزَى كُلُّ نَفْسٍ بِمَا كَسَبَتْ وَهُمْ لَا يُظْلَمُونَ﴾ [الجاثية: 21-22] 

{Or do those who commit evils think We will make them like those who have believed and done righteous deeds - [make them] equal in their life and their death? And Allah created the heavens and earth in truth and so that every soul may be recompensed for what it has earned, and they will not be wronged. } 45:21-22

 

﴿وَالَّذِينَ كَسَبُوا السَّيِّئَاتِ جَزَاءُ سَيِّئَةٍ بِمِثْلِهَا وَتَرْهَقُهُمْ ذِلَّةٌ مَا لَهُمْ مِنَ اللَّهِ مِنْ عَاصِمٍ كَأَنَّمَا أُغْشِيَتْ وُجُوهُهُمْ قِطَعًا مِنَ اللَّيْلِ مُظْلِمًا أُولَئِكَ أَصْحَابُ النَّارِ هُمْ فِيهَا خَالِدُونَ﴾ [يونس: 27] 

{But they who have earned [blame for] evil doings - the recompense of an evil deed is its equivalent, and humiliation will cover them. They will have from Allah no protector. It will be as if their faces are covered with shades of night - extremely dark. Those are the companions of the Fire; they will abide therein eternally.} 10:27

 

﴿إِنَّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا يُنْفِقُونَ أَمْوَالَهُمْ لِيَصُدُّوا عَنْ سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ فَسَيُنْفِقُونَهَا ثُمَّ تَكُونُ عَلَيْهِمْ حَسْرَةً ثُمَّ يُغْلَبُونَ وَالَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا إِلَى جَهَنَّمَ يُحْشَرُونَ﴾ [الأنفال: 36] 

{Indeed, those who disbelieve spend their wealth to avert [people] from the way of Allah. So they will spend it; then it will be, for them, a [source of] regret; then they will be overcome. And those who have disbelieved - unto Hell they will be gathered.} 8:36

 

 

﴿وَلَوْ يَرَى الَّذِينَ ظَلَمُوا إِذْ يَرَوْنَ الْعَذَابَ أَنَّ الْقُوَّةَ لِلَّهِ جَمِيعًا وَأَنَّ اللَّهَ شَدِيدُ الْعَذَابِ﴾ [البقرة: 165] 

{And, if only they who have oppressed would consider [that] when they see the punishment, [they will be certain] that all power belongs to Allah and that Allah is severe in punishment.} 2:165

 

Awareness of the reality of divine accountability necessitates the understanding that, through His complete justice and wisdom, Allah has made it known to people what is expected of them and given us guidance and examples to follow and warnings of what to avoid. Consider that local and national laws must be made known and information about them accessible to all concerned parties as a condition for their being responsible for abiding by them. For example, traffic signage must be clearly displayed with no impediments in order for motorists to be cited for violations of their indicated regulations.  If there was no signage or indication in a particular area, then a motorist may rightfully appeal a fine or violation on that basis. Since matters of spiritual success and eternal paradise or punishment are of the utmost important to humans, and they are associated with the highest stakes for compliance or non-compliance, the manifestation of divine justice necessarily entails making divine guidance and directives known to the population are to be responsible for abiding by them.  Otherwise, we would be held unfairly accountable for that which we had no ability to comply with due to non-awareness, however this cannot be the case because our Creator is Wise and Perfect and does will not judge us except by what was in our capacity to know and do. This body of divine commandments, prohibitions, recommendations, and permissions is known as the shariah, and it has been sent by Allah via revelations to messengers and their life- examples and explanations of those references, the most recent and final of them being the Prophet Muhammad to whom the Quran was revealed over a period of the 23 years of his prophethood and remains with us in the same form that it was revealed in and transmitted word-for-word and syllable-by-syllable through the process of memorization, recitation, and written documentation. Consider the following meanings of Quranic verses:

 

﴿فَمَنْ تَبِعَ هُدَايَ فَلَا خَوْفٌ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلَا هُمْ يَحْزَنُونَ (٣٨) وَالَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا وَكَذَّبُوا بِآيَاتِنَا أُولَئِكَ أَصْحَابُ النَّارِ هُمْ فِيهَا خَالِدُونَ﴾ [البقرة: 38-39] 

{And when guidance comes to you from Me, whoever follows My guidance - there will be no fear concerning them, nor will they grieve. And those who disbelieve and deny Our signs - those will be companions of the Fire; they will abide therein eternally."} 2:38-39

 

﴿وَمَا قَدَرُوا اللَّهَ حَقَّ قَدْرِهِ إِذْ قَالُوا مَا أَنْزَلَ اللَّهُ عَلَى بَشَرٍ مِنْ شَيْءٍ﴾ [الأنعام: 91] 

{And they did not regard Allah in the way He deserves when they said, "Allah did not reveal to a human being anything."} 6:91

 

﴿وَاللَّهُ يَقُولُ الْحَقَّ وَهُوَ يَهْدِي السَّبِيلَ﴾ [الأحزاب: 4] 

{Allah says the truth, and He guides to the [right] way.} 33:4

 

﴿وَكَفَى بِرَبِّكَ هَادِيًا وَنَصِيرًا﴾ [الفرقان: 31] 

{Sufficient is your Lord as a guide and a helper.} 25:31

 

 

﴿وَعَلَى اللَّهِ قَصْدُ السَّبِيلِ﴾ [النحل: 9] 

{And upon Allah is [guidance to] the direction of the [right] way, and among the various paths are those deviating.} 16:9

 

﴿إِنَّ هَذَا الْقُرْآنَ يَهْدِي لِلَّتِي هِيَ أَقْوَمُ﴾ [الإسراء: 9] 

{Indeed, this Qur'an guides to that which is most appropriate} 17:9

 

﴿يَاأَيُّهَا النَّاسُ قَدْ جَاءَكُمْ بُرْهَانٌ مِنْ رَبِّكُمْ وَأَنْزَلْنَا إِلَيْكُمْ نُورًا مُبِينًا﴾ [النساء: 174] 

{O mankind, there has come to you a conclusive proof from your Lord, and We have sent down to you a clear light.} 4:174

 

﴿وَلَقَدْ أَنْزَلْنَا إِلَيْكُمْ آيَاتٍ مُبَيِّنَاتٍ وَمَثَلًا مِنَ الَّذِينَ خَلَوْا مِنْ قَبْلِكُمْ وَمَوْعِظَةً لِلْمُتَّقِينَ﴾ [النور: 34] 

{And We have certainly sent down to you distinct verses and examples from those who passed on before you and an admonition for those who fear Allah.} 24:34

 

﴿وَلَقَدْ أَنْزَلْنَا إِلَيْكَ آيَاتٍ بَيِّنَاتٍ وَمَا يَكْفُرُ بِهَا إِلَّا الْفَاسِقُونَ﴾ [البقرة: 99] 

{And We have certainly revealed to you verses [which are] clear proofs, and no one would deny them except the defiantly disobedient.} 2:99

 

﴿قَدْ جَاءَكُمْ مِنَ اللَّهِ نُورٌ وَكِتَابٌ مُبِينٌ (١٥) يَهْدِي بِهِ اللَّهُ مَنِ اتَّبَعَ رِضْوَانَهُ سُبُلَ السَّلَامِ وَيُخْرِجُهُمْ مِنَ الظُّلُمَاتِ إِلَى النُّورِ بِإِذْنِهِ وَيَهْدِيهِمْ إِلَى صِرَاطٍ مُسْتَقِيمٍ﴾ [المائدة: 15-16] 

{There has come to you from Allah a light and a clear Book, by which Allah guides those who pursue His pleasure to the ways of peace and brings them out from darknesses into the light, by His permission, and guides them to a straight path.} 5:15-16

 

﴿رُسُلًا مُبَشِّرِينَ وَمُنْذِرِينَ لِئَلَّا يَكُونَ لِلنَّاسِ عَلَى اللَّهِ حُجَّةٌ بَعْدَ الرُّسُلِ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ عَزِيزًا حَكِيمًا ﴾ [النساء: 165] 

{[We sent] messengers as bringers of good tidings and warners so that mankind will have no argument against Allah after the messengers. And ever is Allah Exalted in Might and Wise.} 4:165

 

To this effect, the Prophet Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلمmentioned that, “No one is fonder of receiving an excuse than God, on which account He has sent warners and announcers of good news”.  (Narrated by Al-Bukhari and Muslim)

 

Finally, once a person comes to know the truth of Allah’s existence and the truths of Judgment Day and revelation and the prophets and messengers, then that person should accept all that is found in revelation and authentic prophetic guidance from knowledge of the unobservable and commands and prohibitions that concern us. This is why the people who have believed are directly addressed as such in almost 100 verses of the Quran, because they accept all that was revealed for them and taught by the Prophetصلى الله عليه وسلم. Consider the following translated Quranic verses:

 

﴿يَاأَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا آمِنُوا بِاللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ وَالْكِتَابِ الَّذِي نَزَّلَ عَلَى رَسُولِهِ وَالْكِتَابِ الَّذِي أَنْزَلَ مِنْ قَبْلُ وَمَنْ يَكْفُرْ بِاللَّهِ وَمَلَائِكَتِهِ وَكُتُبِهِ وَرُسُلِهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ فَقَدْ ضَلَّ ضَلَالًا بَعِيدًا﴾ [النساء: 136] 

{O you who have believed, believe in Allah and His Messenger and the Book that He sent down upon His Messenger and the Scripture which He sent down before. And whoever disbelieves in Allah, His angels, His books, His messengers, and the Last Day has certainly gone far astray.} 4:136

 

﴿يَاأَيُّهَا النَّاسُ قَدْ جَاءَكُمُ الرَّسُولُ بِالْحَقِّ مِنْ رَبِّكُمْ فَآمِنُوا خَيْرًا لَكُمْ وَإِنْ تَكْفُرُوا فَإِنَّ لِلَّهِ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ عَلِيمًا حَكِيمًا﴾ [النساء: 170] 

{O Mankind, the Messenger has come to you with the truth from your Lord, so believe; it is better for you. But if you disbelieve - then indeed, to Allah belongs whatever is in the heavens and earth. And ever is Allah Knowing and Wise.} 4:170

 

﴿يَاأَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا ادْخُلُوا فِي السِّلْمِ كَافَّةً وَلَا تَتَّبِعُوا خُطُوَاتِ الشَّيْطَانِ إِنَّهُ لَكُمْ عَدُوٌّ مُبِينٌ﴾ [البقرة: 208] 

{O you who have believed, enter into Islam completely [and perfectly] and do not follow the footsteps of Satan. Indeed, he is to you a clear enemy.} 2:208

 

﴿يَاأَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا اتَّقُوا اللَّهَ حَقَّ تُقَاتِهِ وَلَا تَمُوتُنَّ إِلَّا وَأَنْتُمْ مُسْلِمُونَ﴾ [آل عمران: 102] 

{O you who have believed, fear Allah as He should be feared and do not die except as Muslims [in submission to Him].} 3:102

 

﴿إِنَّ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ وَأَقَامُوا الصَّلَاةَ وَآتَوُا الزَّكَاةَ لَهُمْ أَجْرُهُمْ عِنْدَ رَبِّهِمْ وَلَا خَوْفٌ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلَا هُمْ يَحْزَنُونَ﴾ [البقرة: 277] 

{Indeed, those who believe and do righteous deeds and establish prayer and give zakah [charity] will have their reward with their Lord, and there will be no fear concerning them, nor will they grieve.} 2:277

 

In the Quran, the importance of accepting Islam and complying with divine guidance is expressed in logical progressions, beginning with establishing the truth of the Lord Creators existence, and ending with a call to all those whom the message reaches to believe in it. These concise and straightforward arguments are effective for those who consider them with clear hearts because the one who is making them is the Creator who created all of their minds and knows our feelings and ways of thinking. Consider the following translated verses:

 

﴿وَلَئِنْ سَأَلْتَهُمْ مَنْ خَلَقَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ وَسَخَّرَ الشَّمْسَ وَالْقَمَرَ لَيَقُولُنَّ اللَّهُ فَأَنَّى يُؤْفَكُونَ (٦١)﴾ [العنكبوت: 61] 

{If you asked them, "Who created the heavens and earth and subjected the sun and the moon?" they would surely say, "Allah." Then how are they deluded?} 29:61

 

﴿وَلَئِنْ سَأَلْتَهُمْ مَنْ نَزَّلَ مِنَ السَّمَاءِ مَاءً فَأَحْيَا بِهِ الْأَرْضَ مِنْ بَعْدِ مَوْتِهَا لَيَقُولُنَّ اللَّهُ قُلِ الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ بَلْ أَكْثَرُهُمْ لَا يَعْقِلُونَ﴾ [العنكبوت: 63] 

{And if you asked them, "Who sends down rain from the sky and gives life thereby to the earth after its lifelessness?" they would surely say " Allah." Say, "Praise to Allah "; but most of them do not reason.} 29:63

 

 

﴿وَلَئِنْ سَأَلْتَهُمْ مَنْ خَلَقَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ لَيَقُولُنَّ خَلَقَهُنَّ الْعَزِيزُ الْعَلِيمُ﴾ [الزخرف: 9] 

 

{And if you should ask them, "Who has created the heavens and the earth?" they would surely say, "They were created by the Exalted in Might, the Knowing."} 43:9

 

Conclusion

 

 What has been discussed in this article can be summarized as simple logical proofs for the existence of the Creator, the fact that he sent messengers and guidance, and the obligation of following them. As for the related subjects of proving that the Quran is true revelation in its original form and the Prophet Muhammadصلى الله عليه وسلم was a true messenger, then they may established by examining the content of the Quran, the linguistic challenges to those who claimed it was not true, and the historical circumstances surrounding its teaching, documentation and transmission as well as the life history of the Prophetصلى الله عليه وسلم, both before and after prophethood found in the body of hadith, which is the most extensive documentation of any human being that has ever existed.  

The logical progression of concepts mentioned in this article is as follows: First consider the question of whether or not there is a creator for all that exists in the universe.  For those who agree that there is one creator, then understanding should follow for them that this Creator is the One Lord who manages and controls all things and events in His creation and is infinitely perfect in his divine attributes, such as being the Most Wise, the Most Merciful, the Most Just, the Most High, and so forth. After this, they may naturally conclude that this Creator has the exclusive right to be worshipped and will judge all capable adults according to how they chose to live their lives and whether or not they accepted the guidance of revelation and the messengers on matters of faith and divine commandments, prohibitions and directives.  Faith in any of these concepts mentioned is predicated by knowledge of what they are based on, with the primary source of truth being Allah, the Creator. As for those who may argue against the existence of the Creator, we can answer them with the following points:

 

A- The acknowledgment of the existence of tools and manufactured objects necessitates the existence of the makers who fashioned and manufactured them. Likewise, acknowledging the existence of object and creatures means acknowledging the existence of a Creator who created them. This argument is alluded to in a conversation between Moses and the Pharaoh, as mentioned in the Quran:

 

﴿قَالَ فِرْعَوْنُ وَمَا رَبُّ الْعَالَمِينَ (٢٣) قَالَ رَبُّ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ وَمَا بَيْنَهُمَا إِنْ كُنْتُمْ مُوقِنِينَ﴾ [الشعراء: 23-24] 

 

{Said Pharaoh, "And what is the Lord of the worlds?" [Moses] said, "The Lord of the heavens and Earth and that between them, if you should be certain [of these heavens and Earth, then you should also be sure that Allah is Lord]."} 26:23-24

 

B- Just as it is impossible to acknowledge the existence of tools and manufactured objects while denying the existence of their makers, it is similarly impossible to rightfully acknowledge the existence of creatures while negating the existence of their Creator.

 

C- If a person dared to deny the existence of manufacturers, he would have to deny the existence of manufactured products, in contradiction to what we can all observe with our own senses. Likewise, if a person dares to deny the existence of the Creator, then he must also deny the existence of all objects and creatures in contradiction to apparent reality and this is also a clearly incorrect conclusion. Therefore, the premise on which it is based on (denial of the Creator) must also be incorrect.

Finally, I advise you as I advise myself - to be aware of Allah and learn and ponder the Qur’an, for, in it, there is an abundance of logical proofs and clear arguments that are linked to all important matters of faith, such as divinity, judgment, scripture, prophethood, and all aspects of the human experience presented in a way that is easy to understand for all that want to benefit. Nevertheless, we should be aware that there are human beings who will not recognize the truth no matter how clear it is, and insist of denying it. These types of people will not gain anything from being exposed to the truth except obstinacy and spite. As for those who find the answers to the questions of faith in the Quran, then, should they choose to act accordingly, they have found peace and success because the Qur’an that is filled with wisdom, knowledge and direction as it was revealed from the Most Wise, Most Knowledgeable, All-Capable Lord of the Worlds, who has described the believers as people of intellect, knowledge, wisdom, glory, light, guidance, remembrance, generosity and blessing with great mercy waiting for them in the hereafter, where they will live in paradise without torment, in happiness without sadness, in bliss without misery, in health without disease, in youth without weakness, and in a life without death. Our Lord did not reveal the Qur’an for us to suffer or be burdened by it, but rather to contemplate and follow it and to enter Paradise and be saved from Hellfire, as our Lord, Glory be to Him, mentions in the Quran:

 

﴿فَمَنِ اتَّبَعَ هُدَايَ فَلَا يَضِلُّ وَلَا يَشْقَى﴾ [طه: 123] 

{Whoever follows My guidance will neither go astray [in the world] nor suffer [in the Hereafter]} 20:123

 

Closing Prayer

 

O Allah, you are undeniably our Lord and there is no true god but You.

You have created us, our lives and livelihoods, and blessed us with countless blessings.

We are your servants, the children of your servants, the children of your maidservants, completely under your power and subject to your destiny.

We honor your covenant and keep our promise.

Only You do we worship and only You do we depend on.

We seek protection in You from the evil of what we do and the evil our neglect.

We ask you by your beautiful names –those that we know and those we do not know - to allow us to enter Heaven and dwell in it forever.

O Allah, forgive us, have mercy on us, guide us, heal us, cover our faults, provide for us, and be gentle with us and our loved ones.

All praise, glory, honor, and thanks is for Allah.

 





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