The Quran: Allah’s Speech or the Prophet Mohammad’s (peace be upon him)?

Reviewing by : A.J. Kassem

1- The style of the Holy Qur’an is completely different from that of Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him. If one compares it to the language in the hadith, which are the Prophet’s sayings, he/she will see a clear difference in the style and language used, as well as the topics covered. The Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him, used common spoken Arabic [i.e., common for that time period], and most hadiths were instances of him teaching or preaching. The Holy Qur’an, however, has a unique style; it delivers its meanings in a different manner altogether.


2- When one reads hadiths, one can easily sense that the person speaking these words is a human being. The personality is apparent in the words, and it is clear that the speaker is subservient to Allah. The Holy Qur’an speaks in a powerful tone from the very first pages – a tone which continues throughout. The style can be described as powerful, just, wise, merciful, and full of eloquence. Even when the topics of mercy and forgiveness are addressed, Allah, the Exalted, speaks from a position of power and grace. If the Qur’an were the words of the Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him, its style and that of the hadith would be the same. Linguistic scholars and researchers throughout the ages have analyzed both and agreed that it is impossible for one person to consistently have two styles which are completely distinct from each other.


3- The Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him, could not read or write. He had never been taught anything formally nor did he attend school. Is it possible for someone without a learned background to come up with the miraculous scripture which is the Quran without any contradiction or linguistic errors? Millions of people throughout history – Muslims and non-Muslims, have acknowledged the greatness of the Qur'an as a blessing and guidance for mankind and covers all of the important topics for humans such as family issues, politics, economics, history, and future predictions. Is it possible that an illiterate man could produce the unique Qur’an?


4- If the views of the Qur’an towards the universe, life, peace, war, society, marriage, worship, and economy were from the Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him, he would not be human because this information is beyond what the human imagination is capable of. Furthermore, the concepts and legislations presented in the Qur'an are beyond the scope of the most capable committees of learned specialists, even after countless years of theorization, study, trials, testing and re-testing. One man, no matter how intuitive and intelligent he may be, and no matter what education he has and qualifications he possesses, cannot come to these sound, timeless conclusions in so many different aspects of life and death.


5- Why would the Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him, write the Quran himself and then say that someone else has done it? Logic would dictate that, if he was lying about the origins of this scripture for selfish reasons, then his own personal greatness would be more apparent if he ascribed to himself a timeless guidebook for life beyond the capabilities of mankind that no one in the world is able to match. What material benefit could the Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him, gain by writing a great, miraculous book and not taking any credit for it?


6- The stories of ancient civilizations mentioned in the Qur’an differ from the popular accounts that were common at that time of revelation. Also found in the Qur'an are scientific facts about the universe, life, medicine, and mathematics. For example, how would an illiterate man know that the amount of oxygen in the air decreases as one ascends, to the point that one’s chest aches? How did he know that the sun and the moon orbit in space?


7- There are many verses in the Quran which reproach the Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him. Does it make sense that the Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him, should write a book and reproach himself in it?  Consider:


  •  A whole Surah (chapter) named 'Abasa.'

{“The Prophet frowned and turned away because there came to him the blind man, [interrupting]. But what would make you perceive, [O Muhammad], that perhaps he might be purified, or be reminded and the remembrance would benefit him? As for he who thinks himself without need, to him you give attention. And not upon you [is any blame] if he will not be purified. But as for he who came to you striving [for knowledge], while he fears [Allah], from him you are distracted.”} (80:1-10)


  • In Surat al-Tawba: {“May Allah pardon you, [O Muhammad]; why did you give them permission [to remain behind]? [You should not have] until it was evident to you who were truthful and you knew [who were] the liars.”} (9:43)


  • Also in Surat al-Tawba: {“It is not for the Prophet and those who have believed to ask forgiveness for the polytheists, even if they were relatives, after it has become clear to them that they are companions of Hellfire.”} (9:113)


Many times, the Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him, and his companions used to do things a certain way, then revelation came down in the Qur'an presenting new legislation, and they would change their ways, submitting to Allah's will. If the Qur’an were the Prophet Muhammad's own creation, he would not include rulings that forced him to change his lifestyle. Logically, it would be easier to make things more convenient for himself, not more difficult.


8- Some events occurred in Prophet Muhammad's life that were quite difficult and would have been easily overcame if he could immediately produce “revelation” to remove the difficulty. If he were the author of the Qur'an, he would have simply invented new verses to resolve the problem, but instead he waited patiently for Allah to reveal the verses of the Qur'an according to His wisdom, and sometimes that left the Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him, in his difficult circumstances for a period of time.


Reference: Al-Islam fi Qafas al-Ittiham, pages 24-28 , by Shawqi Abu Khalil

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